**Review of Set Notation**

Sample Space | |

A is a subset of B | |

Null or empty set ( is a subset of every set) | |

Union of A and B, A or B or both | |

Intersection of A and B. In both A and B | |

or | A compliment (not in A) |

**Mutually Exclusive**

**Laws**

Distributive Laws

Associative Laws

Communtative Laws

De Morgan’s Laws

**Conditional Probability and the Independence of Events**

and

and are **INDEPENDENT** if any of the following is true:

If **DEPENDANT** we have

**Laws of Probability**

Multiplicative Law

If **independent** then

Additive Law

If **mutually exclusive** then

**Compliment**

**Counting Sample Points**

**Multiplication Principle** or ** rule**: E.g. There are 4 suits and 13 cards per suite in a deck of playing cards. The number of distinct cards are therefore .

**Combinations**: objects taken at a time (**the order is irrelevant**). The calculation is called “ choose “.

E.g.

**Permutations**: An **ORDERED** arrangement of distinct objects. The number of ways of ordering distinct objects at a time.

**Partitioning**: Number of ways to pertition n distinct objects into distinct **groups** (each object only in one group).